Substitute that triad!
This is a guitar lesson about how to substitute triads when soloing.
If you feel that this is all over your head but want to find out more, please visit these links before you attempt the lesson.
It’s all in the patterns
In today’s lesson we are going to be in the key of G, we are going to use the E shaped G major scale, it’s first root note is on the 6th string, fret 3. See chordacus image below.
Inside this major scale we find 4 very important tools that we can use when we improvise:
- Seven modes
- Seven arpeggios
- Seven chords
- 6 pentatonic scales (you can’t build a pentatonic from chord VII‘s root)
In order to play freely you must be able to see all these, inside the E shaped G major scale.
The listening part
When you play these permutations they are not like a chromatic exercise, they are musical and you need to pay attention to every number!
Check now, can you see where the #4 is?
It’s on the D string, fret 4, the note is an F#, a #4 away from C, chord IV in the key of G major.
Create a melody
So if you want to “sound modal” you hit those notes, you hit the ones you added on top of the chord and pentatonic notes.
If you instead want to sound more simple in your melodic adventures, and this is the lesson of the day, you stay away from the more exotic notes like #4 and instead focus on the simplest component, the triad and take it from there.
The amazing triad
Here are all the notes of the G major scale:
G A B C D E F#
Each triad chord gained from this scale:
G – G B D
Am – A C E
Bm – B D F#
C – C E G
D – D F# A
Em – E G B
F#dim – F# A C
Here are two important points:
- The minor or major chords are created naturally by taking every other note from the scale.
- Every other chord has similar notes.
Substitute triads over G major
Let’s pick 4 chords for a little experiment and see what we can do with them, the same concept will off course work for all 7 chords and all 5 shapes on the neck.
The chords I’m gonna use are: G, Bm, D and Em
A G chord has the notes G – B – D, the Bm has B – D – F#.
Should we extend the G chord along the major scale the next note would have been an F#, a Gmaj7 would have been the full chord.
So, over a G chord we can play either G B D, or go up to the Bm chord and play B D F#, in doing so we create a more sophisticated sound, a maj7.
If you practiced all exercises as described above this is all in your fingers, you just need to stop thinking of the entire modal pattern or the full arpeggio, just see a little part of it and target intervals as you solo.
Remember, all chords can naturally build like this, Am for example, skip a chord and find C, play this triads notes and you get a min7 sound over the Am chord.
Keep going up!
Back to the G chord, skip a chord and you had Bm, gave us Gmaj7, skip another one and play a D triad, the notes are now the upper part of a Gmaj9 chord and we are half way into the modal world again.
Go down and find the 6th
Should you have gone the other way, so from G, skip a chord down the major scale and you would have ended up on Em and a 6th interval is highlighted.
What do I do with this information?
A lot of guitar players actually do go through with their scale practice but then hit the next hurdle of how to play using the scale, without sounding like they are just playing a scale.
In order to solve this you need to start building little melodies or “licks”, this is best done with intervals in mind so you can translate to other shapes and use the knowledge in other songs and situations.
To hear what a triad sounds like and how it extends through the scale, create some licks only using three notes, keep the rhythm but move up to the next chord, play it using these three notes, then move up again, play it using these notes.
Below is an example of this in TAB, sheet music and an audio file.
Don’t write it down!
This is all stuff you should be doing when you improvise, the aim is not to memorize licks but to learn how to come up with them.
The further away you go from the triad the more adventurous you’ll sound.
Perhaps the 2 chord loops are the best jam tracks for further exploring.
Dan (your guitar guru)
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